New electrode

Improvement of the electrode allows for increasing the density of the stored energy in the battery or supercapacitor.

The problems with existing technologies

Problems

In chemical power sources or electrical energy storage devices there are two problems:

  • Expansion of the surface area of the active electrode.
  • Protection of the conductive metallic electrode from degradation by the electrolyte.

Device

Carbon is a multi-purpose material that can provide a solution to these problems. Carbon is widely used in supercapacitors, chemical sources of electrical energy and fuel cells.
Activated carbon is a porous material which is prepared from various organic carbonaceous materials:
– Charcoal and coconut charcoal;
– Bituminous-coal and petroleum cokes.

Disadvantages

Currently in the manufacture of activated carbon supercapacitors the existing specific capacity for an area of 1 cm² and a layer thickness of one nanometer reaches 2…4 µF. 

Improved electrode

Carbon nanotubes “grown” in a vacuum

The area of the active electrode is 1 cubic centimetre, depending on the diameter of the carbon nanotubes

Площадь активного электрода объёмом 1 кубический сантиметр в зависимости от диаметра углеродных нанотрубок

Device

How can the density of the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor, for example, be increased?
Enlarge the surface area of the supercapacitor electrode, in other words, “shove” a greater area into the same amount of volume.
For this the activated carbon in the electrode must be replaced with carbon nanotubes or graphene compounds “grown” in a vacuum.

Decision

=
If we fill a volume of one cubic centimeter with cylinders (= nanotubes) that are 1cm in height, but have different diameters, then the smaller their diameter the greater the total surface area of all the cylinders will be.
=
When the diameter of the cylinders is reduced to less than 10 nanometers, there is a sharp increase in the area that we can “stuff” into a volume of one cubic centimeter.
=
The specific capacity of the active electrode obtained by our technological process corresponds to a nanotube diameter no greater than 3 nanometers!
=
Furthermore, the electrode coating is denser using vacuum technology. Whereas in conventional supercapacitors the coating density is about 0.5 g/cm³, we get 0.9 g/cm³, i.e. we obtain a dense coating and the volume is used more intelligently: there are no unnecessary pores. There are exactly as many pores as are needed.

Result

The carbon magnetron deposition technology that we are proposing gives both a dense and at the same time high-porous carbon coating with an area of 2000…5000 square meters per cubic centimeter of coating!

The specific capacity of carbon coatings obtained by us using vacuum magnetron deposition in a vacuum reaches 30 µF/cm² ∙ nm.

Model of the hybrid active electrode made from carbon nanotubes

=
Existing industrial manufacturing processes for battery or supercapacitor electrodes work on the “top – down” principle where a big thing is crushed down to little things.
=
To expect that human beings can achieve crushing sizes down to 5 nm and less by chemical or mechanical means is not real. There are limitations to the “top – down” method as it is not possible mechanically or by other means to break the particle size down to less than 100 nanometers.
=
The desired result can be achieved only if we change the principle for obtaining the required size by creating it from the “bottom – up”. Atom by atom, molecule by molecule, something big can be built from something small.
Z
This contains the “secret” of our technology: we are builders, not wreckers!

What carbon nanotubes look like

Approximately 1/50,000th the width of a human hair!
The strongest and most durable material on earth (> 300 X stronger than steel)

The undeniable advantage of magnetron deposition is the fact that the highly porous carbon coating may be doped with various metals, which can be catalysts for chemical reactions, absorbents for hydrogen, can improve the conductivity of the electrical current or serve as active elements in the chemical source of the current.

The total market for energy storage devices in 2015

Electric transport bn $

Power supply (UPS) bn $

Solar and wind energy bn $

Other services bn $

Our third technological process is the creation of a new separator


Improvements to the separator in our technological process increase the reliability of the energy storage device when the battery is overloaded.

Pin It on Pinterest

Shares
Share This